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Alimentation ou allaitement

avril 2021

Si l'amélioration des taux d'allaitement est l'objectif de l'IHAB, alors pourquoi le document clé est-il une politique «d'alimentation du nourrisson» plutôt qu'une politique d'allaitement? Il est intéressant de noter que dans certains des documents de l'IHAB de l'OMS, la politique d'allaitement et les politiques d'alimentation du nourrisson sont utilisées de manière interchangeable - chaque terme apparaît 8 fois dans les directives de mise en œuvre de 2018, par exemple.

 Infant feeding

Dans divers forums, j'ai entendu des critiques sur le terme «politique d'alimentation du nourrisson» au fil des ans. Une critique est que «l'alimentation du nourrisson» crée une focalisation excessive sur l'aspect «alimentation» et nutrition plutôt que sur la relation et les autres impacts sur la santé de l'allaitement ou non. Un autre est qu'il suggère une hésitation à reconnaître l'allaitement comme les soins normaux qu'un nourrisson devrait recevoir ou une réticence à dire ne serait-ce que le mot «sein». Cette réflexion suggère qu'au lieu de normaliser l'allaitement, nous l'avons plutôt remplacé par un terme plus acceptable.

Bien que je reconnaisse que nous avons un long chemin à parcourir dans de nombreux endroits pour atteindre le point où l'allaitement est la norme et que nous devons rester vigilants pour créer des équivalences et des «choix» inexacts, je crois en fin de compte que l'alimentation du nourrisson est un concept utile qui est approprié pour une politique qui énonce les pratiques cliniques et institutionnelles impliquées dans l'Initiative Amis des Bébés.

Comme je l'ai évoqué dans un article précédent, la définition de «l'allaitement» est à la fois critique et très difficile à trouver pour un consensus. Lorsqu'une politique est intitulée «allaitement», l’impression courante est qu’elle vise à favoriser l’allaitement d’un nourrisson au sein de sa propre mère. Alors que certains soutiennent que l'allaitement comprend l'alimentation à la poitrine, l'alimentation du lait humain exprimé et l'alimentation de substituts du lait humain au sein ou à la poitrine, ce sont chacune des expériences uniques pour le nourrisson et sa famille, ainsi que pour l'équipe qui les soutient.

L'alimentation du nourrisson reste un terme imparfait pour saisir les expériences et les concepts impliqués dans l'IHAB - pourtant, c'est un terme utile. Nous travaillons à améliorer les résultats de santé, et non les taux d'allaitement, et atteindre le «niveau de santé le plus élevé possible» pour tous est en fin de compte l'objectif.

Michelle Pensa Branco MPH IBCLC
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Les références:

Organisation mondiale de la santé. (2018). Protection, encouragement et soutien de l’allaitement dans les établissements assurant des services de maternité et de soins aux nouveau-nés: Révision de l’Initiative Hôpitaux amis des bébés 2018 - Orientations de mise en oeuvre.
Accédé 7 avril 2021: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/bfhi-implementation/fr/
Organisation mondiale de la santé. (2017). Santé et droits de l’homme.
Accédé 7 avril 2021: https://www.who.int/fr/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/human-rights-and-health

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