Although research in safe sleep, breastfeeding, skin-to-skin care, and general sleep guidelines is still in its infancy, there are several researchers responsible for the best information on these subjects.
Professor Helen L Ball is Head of Anthropology at Durham University in the UK. She has been researching infant sleep for the past 20 years, concentrating on the sleep ecology of infants, young children and their parents. She has conducted research in hospitals and the community, and contributes to national and international policy and practice guidelines on infant care.
Professor James J. McKenna is recognized as the world's leading authority on mother-infant co-sleeping in relationship to breastfeeding and SIDS. In recognition of his work in 2009 he was admitted as a Fellow into the select body of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the world's most prestigious scientific society. Professor McKenna has published over 139 refereed scientific articles in diverse medical and anthropological journals on co-sleeping, breastfeeding, evolutionary medicine and SIDS both here and abroad. He also regularly gives lectures on over 20 specialized topics relating to co-sleeping and breastfeeding especially to pediatric medical professionals and parents. Here in the United States he remains a primary spokesperson to the media on issues pertaining to infant-parental sleeping arrangements, nighttime breastfeeding and SIDS prevention.
Dr. Nils Bergman graduated at the University of Cape Town, and has worked in South Africa, Ciskei and Sweden before working seven years as Medical Superintendent and District Medical Officer at Manama Mission, Zimbabwe. Here he, together with Midwife Agneta Jurisoo, developed and implemented Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for premature infants right from birth. This resulted in a five-fold improvement in survival of Very Low Birth Weight babies. He introduced KMC to South Africa in 1995, and after 5 years, KMC became official policy for care of prematures in the hospitals of the Western Cape province. He has given keynote addresses on KMC at International Conferences in six continents, and published articles on a variety of subjects in medical journals. He now researches and promotes KMC full-time.
Dr. Susan Ludington Hoe founded and heads the US Institutes for Kangaroo Care, whose mission is to promote the Family Friendly Hospital Initiative and utilization of Kangaroo Care for all newborns in the Americas by providing education, resources, links to additional resources, consultation, a comprehensive annotated bibliography of all publications about Kangaroo Care from around the world, and recognition of excellence in Kangaroo Care by certification. The USIKC is the only authorized certifying entity in the Americas.
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) brings together research in all aspects of safe sleep, risk factors, etc. In 1994, the NICHD - in partnership with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, the SIDS Alliance (now First Candle), and the Association of SIDS and Infant Mortality Program - launched the Back to Sleep campaign to educate parents and caregivers about ways to reduce the risk of SIDS.
Linda J. Smith, Kathy Kendall-Tackett, and others continue to work at policy level as well as parental education level to increase the knowledge of safe sleep arrangements.
Controversy arose when the guidelines were released that condemned having the breastfeeding infant in the same sleep space as the breastfeeding mother. McKenna states, "A second factor that has a strong influence on safe infant sleep is breastfeeding. Breastfeeding significantly helps to protect infant from death including deaths from SIDS/SUID and from secondary disease and/or congenital conditions. Post-natally safe infant sleep begins especially with the presence of an informed, breastfeeding, committed mother, or an informed and committed father,” (Safe Co-sleeping Guidelines, downloaded 6/22/17 from http://cosleeping.nd.edu/). Research has found a backlash to this messaging, in which mothers (and other adults) are sleeping on the couch or in a recliner, which are not safe sleep environments.
(Image taken from "Sweet Sleep”, LLLI.org)
Access to the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine protocols is free, and their Protocol #6 on Co-Sleeping and Breastfeeding can be downloaded here http://www.bfmed.org/Media/Files/Protocols/Protocol_6.pdf
Kathy Parkes, MSN-Ed, BSPsy, RN, IBCLC, RLC, FILCA
Professional Development Educator, Step 2 Education International
When you visit the Site, we automatically collect certain information about your device, including information about your web browser, IP address, time zone, and some of the cookies that are installed on your device. Additionally, as you browse the Site, we collect information about the individual web pages or products that you view, what websites or search terms referred you to the Site, and information about how you interact with the Site. We refer to this automatically-collected information as Device Information."
We collect Device Information using the following technologies:
Additionally when you make a purchase or attempt to make a purchase through the Site, we collect certain information from you, including your name, billing address, shipping address, payment information (including credit card numbers), email address, and phone number. We refer to this information as "Order Information."
We use the Order Information that we collect generally to fulfill any orders placed through the Site (including processing your payment information, arranging for shipping, and providing you with invoices and/or order confirmations). Additionally, we use this Order Information to:
We use Student Access Information to provide accurate tracking to Users and Clients on completion and use of the courses, as well as for analysis on how to improve our services.
We use the Device Information that we collect to help us screen for potential risk and fraud (in particular, your IP address), and more generally to improve and optimize our Site (for example, by generating analytics about how our customers browse and interact with the Site, and to assess the success of our marketing and advertising campaigns).
We share your Personal Information with third parties to help us use your Personal Information, as described above. For example, with your employer who needs to verify your completion or progress of your studies. We also use Google Analytics to help us understand how our customers use the Site--you can read more about how Google uses your Personal Information here: https://www.google.com/intl/en/policies/privacy/. You can also opt-out of Google Analytics here: https://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout.
Finally, we may also share your Personal Information to comply with applicable laws and regulations, to respond to a subpoena, search warrant or other lawful request for information we receive, or to otherwise protect our rights.
As described above, we use your Personal Information to provide you with targeted advertisements or marketing communications we believe may be of interest to you. For more information about how targeted advertising works, you can visit the Network Advertising Initiative's ("NAI") educational page at https://www.networkadvertising.org/understanding-online-advertising/how-does-it-work.
You can opt out of targeted advertising by:
Additionally, you can opt out of some of these services by visiting the Digital Advertising Alliance's opt-out portal at: http://optout.aboutads.info.
Please note that we do not alter our Site's data collection and use practices when we see a Do Not Track signal from your browser.
If you are a European resident, you have the right to access personal information we hold about you and to ask that your personal information be corrected, updated, or deleted. If you would like to exercise this right, please contact us through the contact information below.
Additionally, if you are a European resident we note that we are processing your information in order to fulfill contracts we might have with you (for example if you make an order through the Site), or otherwise to pursue our legitimate business interests listed above. Additionally, please note that your information will be transferred outside of Europe, including to Canada and the United States.
When you place an order through the Site, we will maintain your Order Information and Student Access Information for our records unless and until you ask us to delete this information. We are required to keep course completion records for at least 5 years in order to comply with certain accreditation requirements.
For more information about our privacy practices, if you have questions, or if you would like to make a complaint, please contact us by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or by mail using the details provided below:
5890 Monkland Avenue, #16, Montreal, QC, H4A 1G2, Canada
Last Updated: September 2018